Epilepsy support association uganda

TRAINING MANUAL FOR SELF HELP COMMUNITY GROUP LEADERS

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FOREWORD

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There is a misunderstanding about epilepsy to varying degrees in every country in the world. This leaves people with epilepsy to be marginalized and discriminated.

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As long as this misunderstanding exists, educating the general public and specific target group, whose knowledge about epilepsy is of particular importance, will remain a necessity.

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Epilepsy Support Association Uganda thought by educating leaders of persons with epilepsy and leaders in the association about the major issues in epilepsy management, leadership, group development and dynamics, advocacy and lobbying as well as financial management would enhance the leadership qualities of these people and enable them to participate in development activities in their branches and communities.

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Epilepsy Support Association Uganda (ESAU) hopes that this training manual will benefit all leaders of persons with epilepsy in Uganda and that these leaders will be able to provide  the highest quality of leadership to parents, persons with epilepsy and other volunteers engaged in development work for the benefit of persons with epilepsy.

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The preliminary efforts to organize persons with epilepsy started around 1997 and group therapy was identified as being the best approach to reach out to persons with epilepsy and to encourage them to join support groups. Epilepsy carries a lot of social stigma and for people to come out openly to announce that they live with the condition or care for a child with epilepsy, requires great boldness. Group therapy was also chosen because it would enable member of ESAU to come together, learn from each other and talk. “Talking heals” so they say in psychology. Many people have indeed been healed and other have had their lives transformed because they were able to meet people from across the whole of Uganda that suffer the same condition.  From Cilio Arua to Hamurwa in Kabale, from Kitoba in Hoima to Kyanamukaka in Masaka, from Metu in Moyo to Budondo in Jinja, persons with epilepsy in Uganda were brought together and trained on how they could work together as a marginalized group to improve their livelihoods.

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Initially ESAU convinced the National Union of Persons with Disabilities in Uganda (NUDIPU) to accept persons with epilepsy as a new and emerging disability. It was a lot of conviction as person with disabilities then only knew that disability was visible and limited to the loss of physical functioning of some or all parts of the body. Epilepsy therefore became an invisible disability and ESAU became a member of NUDIPU in 2003. This facilitated advocacy as ESAU benefited from the larger for a available to PWDs in parliament and the districts. By 2014, ESAU was running activities in 42 districts of Uganda well spread throughout the districts of Uganda and had trained 750 people in leadership and group dynamics. The association had become a national association registered as an NGO and affiliated to the International Bureau of Epilepsy (IBE) as a local Ugandan Chapter of the IBE.

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The other reason why great energy was spent on building the capacity of persons with epilepsy to manage support groups and associations was the requirement to fit within the government’s philosophy of supporting vulnerable people organized in groups. These government projects  included Community Driven Development (CDD) Grant for persons with Disability, Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF 1&11), National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) and more recently Operation Wealth Creation (OWC). Many other NGOs also used a similar strategy to penetrate communities and to alleviate poverty By training people living with chronic epilepsy, ESAU was able to provide them tools and lay a foundation for them to participate in these government projects and to work together to build small Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLA) through which they would help each other not only to get income but more importantly to get money to but medications when the public health care system could not provide free drugs. The training in economic empowerment therefore also enabled the group leaders to operate and manage community drug banks where patients would come and pick their medications every month. Such drug banks have been very successful at Rubindi Health Centre in Mbarara, Mushanga Health Centre in Sheema, Kagamba Health Centre in Ntungaamo, Metu Health Centre in Moyo, Pope John XX111 Hospital in Aber, Madera health Centre in Soroti and Azur Health Centre in Hoima. The skills gained from these training have also enabled individual persons with epilepsy to run individual projects in their homes  many are able to secure regular medications fro their children or relatives from pharmacies on the open market.

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This manual which ESAU has tested for over 10yers is therefore very relevant to many other community workers that work with rural and community based groups. ESAU has put it together as a way of contributing to this development practice but also as a way of documenting some of the best practices that as an organization, we have been engaged in the last two decades. We are therefore sure that many of the topics covered here can inspire other development practitioners to reach especially the marginalized and invisible populations in our country. We are aware that there are many people who live with chronic disabling conditions like celebral palsy, hydrocephalous, Spina Bifida, Albinism and others who could benefit from ESAU’s experiences.

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INTRODUCTION

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This training manual consists of seven major components that will provide the basis for the training of group leaders. A thorough elaboration of these skills in these seven components will provide for a well laid out foot path for upcoming groups to get inspiration in the work they do. For those that have received some training from other sources, this manual can help to revise and improve their management practices.  The topics covered here may relate to ESAU but the principles may be applied to other groups in our communities like churches, women’s groups or village banks.

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These seven components include the following:

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  1. Preliminaries,  Vision, Mission and Objectives of ESAU
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  3. Medical aspects of epilepsy
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  5. Group dynamics and development
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  7. Advocacy, Lobbying, Networking and Partnership development
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  9. Membership issues and development
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  11. Leadership
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  13. Financial management
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  15. Income generation
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  17. Village savings & loan associations (VSLAs)
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TRAINING MANUAL FOR SELF HELP COMMUNITY GROUP LEADERS

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PRELIMINARIES

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At the start of every workshop or training there should be a preliminary session which should include, among others, introduction of participants & facilitators, their expectations, workshop norms, objectives and expected outputs of the workshop. These act as ice breakers for people in the workshop to know each other and to understand how they will relate with each other during the course of the training.

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Workshop objectives

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     It is important to clarify the objectives of the training so that participants clearly understand what will be achieved in the time planned. ESAU’s capacity building seminars usually rotated around these objectives;

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  • To equip ESAU leaders with the right information on epilepsy and how it is treated.
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  • To equip participants with leadership skills and group dynamics.
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  • Strengthen the capacity of participants to effectively advocate, lobby , network and partner with other disabled peoples’ organisations (DPOs) and development organizations in their respective communities so as to improve their wellbeing
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  • Strengthen the capacity of participants in financial management so as to be able to raise funds, manage them and account to the members.
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Workshop outputs

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  • District and local leaders will contribute to the discussion and role play the skills they have acquired
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  • District and local branch leaders will be able to guide and steer their groups to perform better.
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Training sessions

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Training session should take 40-60 minutes for each topic, 5 minutes for introduction of the topic, 30 minutes of plenary/participative discussion depending on the trainers’ method of training and allowing room for 15 minute discussions after the sessions.

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METHODOLOGY

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The training should adopt a flexible methodology depending on the composition of the participants. For example, it is not uncommon to find that a good proportion of the participants do not understand English. In this case, it is good to allow participants to discuss the topic in groups for the benefit of those who do not speak English. The specific methods to use must be participatory and should include all or some of the following: lecture, group discussion, presentation, question and answer, and demonstration. Role play is a very important method to engage adult learners. In addition, participants may be given handouts at the end of the workshop.

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TOPIC ONE: VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES OF ESAU.

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Vision

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A Ugandan society in which epilepsy is understood and persons with epilepsy are treated with dignity so that they can exercise their full potential and participate in development processes.

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Mission

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To become the leading organization that empowers people with epilepsy(PWE) to participate in developmental processes through advocacy, networking, research and documentation.

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Objectives

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  • To create awareness among people with epilepsy, their relatives, health workers, opinion leaders and the community.
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  • To build networks and alliances through which the association can advocate for the rights of PWE.
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  • To empower ESAU structures engage decision makers at the district and sub-county levels for effective service delivery.
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  • To build an association in which people with epilepsy, their relatives and guardians are empowered and participate in advocacy, networking, research and lobbying for their rights so as to achieve dignity and equal service delivery.
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TOPIC TWO: MEDICAL ASPECTS OF EPILEPSY

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Objectives of the training

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  1. To equip leaders of persons with epilepsy with skills in being able to understand and identify cases of epilepsy.
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  3. To equip PWE leaders with thorough knowledge on the types, causes and management of epilepsy.
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Definition: “The falling illness”. It is a condition caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain which may lead to loss of consciousness or abnormal behavior

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Causes of epilepsy

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  1. Untreated malaria (Febrile illness)
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  3. Birth injuries  resulting from\r\n
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    • Prolonged labour 
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    • Obstructed labour
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    • Forceps delivery
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    • Vacuum extraction
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    • Low oxygen at birth
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  5. Infections\r\n
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    • Untreated malaria
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    • measles
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    • Meningitis
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    • Tetanus
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    • HIV
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  7. Accidents involving the brain (Trauma to the brain)
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  9. Epilepsy can be hereditary and may run in certain families (inheritance)
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  11. Misuse of alcohol and other intoxicating substances like drugs
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  13. Some causes of epilepsy are not known
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  15. Birth defects in the brain like tumors 
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In the causes generated by the participants they emphasized that Malaria is the most common cause of epilepsy 

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TYPES OF EPILEPSY

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There are four main types of epilepsy.  Participants were taken through the four main types of epilepsy and the facilitator invited the parents/ guardians to identify which particular type affects their children. The facilitator also demonstrated the onset of each type

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1. Grand Mal epilepsy

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This was identified as the commonest type of epilepsy that affects at least 70% of all people that suffer from epilepsy. It involves generalized seizures that affect the whole body and is characterized by loss of consciousness, abnormal movement of the limbs, froth in the mouth, biting of the tongue and stiffening of the jaws  and other muscles

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2. Petit Mal epilepsy (Absence Seizures)

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This type affects mostly children and initially doesn’t involve falling as the seizure is mild and only causes temporary loss of consciousness and abnormal behavior. The facilitator clarified to participants that this type of epilepsy may go for long without the parents or teachers identifying that the child has epilepsy. He also mentioned that if this condition goes for long without being treated, it will progress into grand mal

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3. Jacksonian Fit (Partial Complex seizures)

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This was explained to be a type of epilepsy that initially affects one side of the brain. If there is a damage on one part of the brain, then seizures will start from the opposite side of the body that is controlled by this side of the brain. The facilitator demonstrated how this epilepsy presents initially by affecting the extreme end of the limbs (either finger or toes) and progressively advances to affect the hand and legs. The patient may then fall if the seizures spread to affect both sides of the brain causing imbalance in the whole body

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4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Complex Generalised Seizures)

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The facilitators took the participants through the process of identifying the five senses of the body and went on to explain that this type may affect one of the senses and then cause sabnormal activity or behavior involving that very sense. He explained that people who suffer from this type of epilepsy may see unusual things, smell queer, hear unusual noises or voices or feel strange feelings on their body. He explained that due to such experiences, people may thus behave abnormally or strangely. He emphasized that all this happens when they are unconscious

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Status Epilepticus

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The facilitator then moved on to explain that any of these types of epilepsy may cause repeated and uncontrolled seizures that occur after short intervals of time. He emphasized that such an occurrence is a medical emergency and that a person experiencing status epilepticus should be taken to the nearest health facility for medical attention

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Which age group suffers from Epilepsy?

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When participants asked which age they think can suffer from epilepsy. Some think it can be from the womb of the mother to as long as the life ends and others think it can start in the middle ages to somewhere in old age. The conclusion by the facilitator was that epilepsy could affect any person at any age. When it comes to sex and race it doesn’t discriminate.

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Management of epilepsy

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  1. Medical 
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Chemotherapy (drugs) anticonvulsants

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  1. Phenobarbitone
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This can be on 30 and 60mgm and the dosage depends on age, duration and frequency of fits.

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30mgm to 600mgms the dosage can be

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- Once a day       OD.  60mg od x 1/12

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- Twice a day     BD. 30mg bd x 2/52

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- Thrice a day     TDS. 90mg tds x 1/7

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Side effects of Phenobarbitone

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Phenobarbitone is an old anti convulsant (medication for convulsions) that has a lot of side effects and is not recommended for use in children as it causes

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  • Dull ness
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  • Drowsiness
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Precautions

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  • Don’t give to school going children and drivers
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  •  Causes restlessness
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  • Don’t give to pregnant mothers because of its terapogenic effects (its not good for the feotus)
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  1. Phenyton (epanutin) 
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100 mgs Tabs, Capsules, Syrup and injection

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Dose 100 to 300mgs in divided dosed an in (1) above

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Side effects

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  • Gum atrophy (leads the gum to expand)
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  • Peeling of skin (when you see this side effect discontinue from use)
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  • Steven Johnson’s syndrome
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Pealing of skin

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Swelling of the body

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Several joint pains

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Confusion

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  1. Cabamazepine (Tegretol)
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  • Tablets 100mgs) each (100 mgs)
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Dose 100 to 1,200mgs in divided doses as in (1) above

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Side effects

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  • Itching of the skin
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  • Skin rushes
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  1. Sodium Valporate (Epilim) 200mgs base
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Dose range 200 – 600mgs in divided doses

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Side effects

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  • Itching of the skin
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  • Controls adolescence seizures
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Desired effects

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  • Controls aggression
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  • Paranoia
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  • Depression
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  • Malaria 
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  1. Ethosuximide (zarontin) capsule Jelatine 250mgs
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  • Useful in absence seizures
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  • Controls abnormal behaviors
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  • Good for school going children / workers
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Precaution:

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 Avoid high doses

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Dose range 250 – 750 mgs in divided doses

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Principles of drug use

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  • Use one drug at a time
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  • Begin with the lowest dose
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  • Multiple drug use causes toxicity
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  • If you are seeing the patient for the first time give medicine for two weeks and review the patient after a fortinight
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  • If fits occur at night give night doses only
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  • If fits occur with mental illness give medication for mental illness
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  • Withdraw of drugs should be gradual to avoid status epilepticus
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  • Increase dose during febrile illness, pre menstrual periods, stress, and pregnancy.
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  • Let patient have enough sleep
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  • Let patient have enough food
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  • Avoid excessive exercise
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  • Avoid boredom
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Community management

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  • Know your client by name, age, sex, home, likes, dislikes and treatment
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  • Know your client’s caretakers and relatives
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  • Be free with clients / caretakers, encourage them to ask questions about the illness
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  • Educate the clients about the illness, the drugs, opportunities available, (education and responsibility), health care services available, the dangers of (alcohol and incompliance) and complications.
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  • Provide counseling to both the patient and the family and where necessary refer to other specialists
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  • Encourage the patient to respect appointments and return for review by the clinician
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  • The care giver should keep a dairy of how many seizures the patient has had in a particular period
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  • Fight against stigmatization, discrimination, nicknaming
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  • Encourage children to go to school, adults to be responsible citizens and to remain active in life.
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First aid (when a client has fallen what you do)

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It is important to know that epilepsy is not contagious and that helping a person with epilepsy during a seizure or touching him will not transmit epilepsy to you. Depending on the type of epilepsy the person suffers, epileptic seizures may be scaring but it is advisable to remain calm in order to help the person experiencing a seizure. A seizure may last a minute or less. Most people that experience seizures may regain conscious very fast while others may remain confused shortly after a seizure

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  • Remove them from dangerous objects like fire, wall, and tree.
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  • Protect the head from hitting the ground because it can cause more harm to the brain    
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  • Lie them on their side during a seizure
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  • Make sure the air way is open
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  • Remove any secretions from the mouth
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  • Loosen tight clothes e.g. neck tie, belt, unbutton, shoes
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  • Stay with the patient, show him where he is(orientate), let him know who you are, talk to him and if not on medication advise him to go to hospital.
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Trigger factors for seizures among persons with epilepsy

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Certain situations and occurrences may lead to the occurrence of a seizure

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  • Infections e.g. malaria
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  • Stress
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  • Hunger
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  • Anger
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  • Overwork
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  • Being excited
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  • Heat
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  • Television flickers
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  • Water waves
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  • Bright lights
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  • Excessive cold
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  • Mirage on the road
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  • Fear of any thing (phobia)
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The medical facilitator emphasized to the participants to encourage them to always take their clients to hospital for review to increase or decrease the dosage of medications and also where they can not manage they can contact some one who can help more than they can.

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TOPIC THREE: GROUP DYNAMICS AND DEVELOPMENT

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Introduction

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Groups form a basic unit of work activity in all fields and yet the underlying process is poorly managed. This session looks at the basics of group work and suggests ways to accelerate development.

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  • What is a group?
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  • Why a group?
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  • Why form groups/importance?
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  • Reasons for group formation
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  • What is group dynamics?
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  • What comprises of a group?
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  • Stages of group development
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  • Characteristics of a group.
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  • Elements of a constitution
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What is a group?

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A group is a collection of people with a common development interest. They regularly interact and influence each other towards a common goal. Through interactions members become interdependent, share norms, participate in a system of interlocking roles, identify themselves and can be identified by others as an entity.

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Why a group?

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  • Groups are particularly good at combining talents and providing innovative solutions to possible unfamiliar problems.
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  • There is an overriding advantage in a group – based work force which makes it attractive to management: that it engenders a fuller utilization of the work force.
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  • A group can be seen as a self-managing unit- a range of skills are brought on board by all members.
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  • From the individual’s point of view, there is the added incentive that through belonging to a group each can participate in achievements well beyond his/her own individual potential.
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  • The individual’s talents are better utilized in a group i.e. the recognition of the worth of the individual.
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  • Groups are good for interaction and experience sharing for all members and they hence greatly learn from each other.
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  • Group pressure helps to change members’ negative attitudes towards development initiatives.
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  • Groups increase people’s opportunities for participation in development.
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  • When together it is easy to analyze problems and to possibly find solutions to the same.
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  • Find solutions to a common problem
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  • Groups promote inter-personal relationships and collaboration at local level.
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  • There is always a multiplier effect in the dissemination of information and adoption of any new innovation through the member to member approach.
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  • They help to build the capacity of local communities to plan and manage the little resources profitably.
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  • They enhance member participation in monitoring and evaluation of development programmes meant for them
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  • As a source of motivation – people feel proud to be part of a group.
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  • There is group security.
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  • For easy marketing of products.
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  • Allocation of duties and specialization makes work easy.
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  • It gives encouragement to others.
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Reasons for group formation

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People form groups to;

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  • To answer to a need
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  • To pull resources together
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  • To solve a problem
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  • To cater for a certain interest
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  • To give a service
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  • To identify themselves with a certain community
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  • To be friendly with people of similar interests and values
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  • To learn some skills and knowledge from others
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  • To collectively contribute to community work
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What is group dynamics?

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Stages of Group Development

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Bruce W. Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the then four stages of group development in 1965. He further refined and developed the model in 1977 (in conjunction with Mary Ann Jensen) with the addition of a fifth stage.

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It is important to note that this process can be subconscious, although an understanding of the stages can help groups reach effectiveness more quickly and less painfully.

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Stage 1: Forming

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This is when the group first comes together. Individual behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by others, and avoid controversy and conflict.

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  • Individuals with a common problem or need come together.
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  • Individuals want to establish personal identity within the group and make an impression.
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  • Participation is limited as individuals get accustomed to group settings and one another.
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  • Individuals discuss the reason for being together.
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  • The group is essentially evolving ground rules on which future decisions and actions shall be based.
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Stage 2: Storming

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  • This is when all hell breaks loose. Lots of conflict.
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  • Factions form, personalities clash, no one concedes a single point without first fighting tooth and nail.
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  • Most importantly, very little communication occurs since no one is listening.
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  • The stage leads to new and more realistic setting of objectives, procedure and norms.
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Stage 3: Norming

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The “rules of engagement” for the group become established, and the scope of the group’s tasks or responsibilities is clear and agreed.

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    \r\n
  • Desire to maintain and perpetuate group, development of group spirit, harmony becomes important.
  • \r\n
  • They now understand each other better, and can appreciate each other’s skills and experience.
  • \r\n
  •  Individuals listen to each other, appreciate and support each other, and are prepared to change pre – conceived views: they feel they are part of a cohesive, effective group.
  • \r\n
  • every member begins to feel secure in expressing their own view points and these are discussed openly with the whole group. Work methods become established and recognized by the group as a whole.
  • \r\n
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Stage 4: Performing

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    \r\n
  • Characterized by full maturity and maximum productivity.
  • \r\n
  • Can only be reached by successfully completing the previous three stages.
  • \r\n
  • Members adopt and play roles that enhance the task activities of the group, since they have now learnt to relate to one another.
  • \r\n
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Stage 5: Adjourning

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This is about completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members. Individuals will be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group. They need to recognize what they have done and consciously move on. Some authors describe stage 5 as “Deforming and Mourning”, recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members.

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                           WHAT IS GROUP DYNAMICS?

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Are interactions and forces with in small face to face groups? People in groups influence each other in various ways and this may help or hinder their functioning. It is therefore necessary to understand how this happens. So members and group leaders need to understand group dynamics and the people they are working with in order to manage effectively any group in learning or working situation

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Behavior in groups; Different people behave differently in groups.

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Group building and maintenance role; Maintenance of good relation is important throughout the life of the group so that it completes its tasks successfully.

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Group building and maintenance role; Maintenance of good relation is important throughout the life of the group so that it completes its tasks successfully.

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Group identity/objects of a group; It involves selecting of a group name, payment of membership fee and registration of the group with the local authorities and development organizations.

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Postal address: Group Name

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A group name is a distinction used to identify a group. Thus it should sell the group to the outside world and the group members should be proud of the enterprise or activity engaged in.

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Physical location; a group should have a physical address or office association with it so that it can easily be traced and identified.

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Group Constitution; it is very vital and central to the group sustainability. It clearly specifies the objectives of the group, the membership and rules and regulations governing the group.

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Group Registration Certificate; Group registration is the process through which the group is made to the local administration (village council, parish, sub county and district) and with other development organizations. For purpose of recognition and benefits accrued to membership.

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Factors affecting group formation, cohesion and sustainability;

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    \r\n
  • Size
  • \r\n
  • Motivation
  • \r\n
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Characteristics of manageable and or sustainable groups

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    \r\n
  •   Collective goal formation/setting
  • \r\n
  •  Clarify tasks & record of understanding of tasks
  • \r\n
  •  Written record of group activies, minutes, reports
  • \r\n
  • Commitment to accomplishment of goals
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  •  Effectively communicate with one another and provide feedback to one     another.
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  •  Clear role and responsibility of members
  • \r\n
  •  Transparency/information sharing
  • \r\n
  •  Consensus in decision making
  • \r\n
  •  Encouragement of innovativeness by member/leader
  • \r\n
  •  God organization
  • \r\n
  •  Able leadership
  • \r\n
  •  Foundation on a saving and credit scheme
  • \r\n
  •  Clear sources of funds for the group
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GROUP SKILLS

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The group process is a series of changes which occur as a group of individuals form into a cohesive and effective operating unit. If the process is understood, it can be accelerated. There are two main sets of skills which a group must acquire:

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*    Managerial Skills

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*    Interpersonal Skills

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Factors influencing group cohesion

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    \r\n
  • Frequency of contact (frequent interaction among members enhances participation of group members and they feel a sense of belonging).
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  • Satisfaction of group needs (a well-defined goal, SMART objectives, action plan, availability of resources, and absence of external interference or influence unites members).
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  • Satisfaction of members’ needs (one shall perform if his/her needs are satisfied).
  • \r\n
  • Size of the group (when members are not too few and not too many for reasons already explained above).
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  • Degree of homogeneity and heterogeneity (people of the same status and common interests find it easy to cling together and the reverse is true).
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  • Threat (no one feels secure under threats, thus absence leads to unity).
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  • Group norms (norms formulated in a participatory way unite members better than those formulated by a few members).
  • \r\n
  • Leadership (leaders who listen and are available, open, caring, trustworthy and loving enhance group solidarity).
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  • Equitable sharing of group benefits (this eliminates conflicts and keeps members cooperating).
  • \r\n
  • Representation of different gender, youth, PWDs in leadership positions ensure continued unity).
  • \r\n
  • Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS is very imperative.
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                                   Group Constitution

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A constitution is a document made by members of a group in a participatory manner. It spells out the mission or goal, as well as rules and regulations which guide the group’s activities. It sets out clear guidelines on members’ rights and obligations to the group. It can be be, approved and changed by all group members.

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Elements of a constitution

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*    Name and address

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*    Goals and objectives

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*    Membership composition, size and contribution

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*    Termination of membership

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*    Meetings (venue, frequency, code of conduct)

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*    Leadership structure and roles of each office bearer

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*    Election procedure and Term of office

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*    Financial management

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*    Conflict resolution procedure

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*    Constitution amendments procedure

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*    Group dissolution procedure

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*    Adoption of the constitution

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Conclusion

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Groups are like relationships - you have to work at them. Time and resources must be allocated to this by the group and by management, and the group process must be planned, monitored and reviewed, just like any other managed process.

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TOPIC FOUR: ADVOCACY / LOBBYING, NETWORKING AND PARTNERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

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Session Objectives

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    \r\n
  1. Definition of advocacy & lobbying
  2. \r\n
  3. To understand why one/group/organization should advocate
  4. \r\n
  5. Types of advocacy
  6. \r\n
  7. Rules of advocacy
  8. \r\n
  9. Advocacy issues
  10. \r\n
  11. What to advocate for
  12. \r\n
  13. Identification of power centers
  14. \r\n
  15. Principles of advocacy
  16. \r\n
  17. Guide in development of a clear advocacy strategy
  18. \r\n
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What is advocacy/lobbying?

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    \r\n
  • Advocacy can be defined as the act of speaking or of disseminating information intended to influence individual behavior or opinion, corporate conduct, or public policy and law or decision-makers. Advocacy often occurs in the context of activities intended to educate and inform.
  • \r\n
  • Advocacy is a process of influencing the “powerful” in society when they make/review certain policies, allocate resources and propose any changes so that if these happened they should be done in favor of the powerless or poor in society.
  • \r\n
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Lobbying

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    \r\n
  • Lobbying is a sub-set of advocacy. It refers to persuading decision – makers to change policies / laws, practices, resource allocation in favor of your issues.
  • \r\n
  • Lobbying is a form of advocacy, meant to influence decisions for organizations
  • \r\n
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Why advocate?

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    \r\n
  • To influence decision-makers to design, adopt or change policies and practices to take care of your issues and needs.
  • \r\n
  •  Aimed at resisting unequal power relations and creating space for the poor to change systems i.e. social, economic, and political as required.
  • \r\n
  • To gain support for social changes at official level.
  • \r\n
  • To draw attention to important issues in society and have them on the social and political agenda for change.
  • \r\n
  • To raise awareness and citizen participation in decision-making.
  • \r\n
  • Changing attitudes is a more sustainable way of securing ongoing change in the direction defined by the change of attitudes.
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                                      PRINCIPLES OF ADVOCACY

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  1. Client Directed; Advocates work in the direction of clients, so the client makes an informed choice.
  2. \r\n
  3. Conflict Management; endeavor to avoid confrontational approaches as much as possible.
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  5. Confidentiality;
  6. \r\n
  7. Culturally Sensitive; Advocates must take into consideration the cultural, linguistic and communication needs of clients.
  8. \r\n
  9. Duty of Care; - The advocate has a duty of care that they will not advocate in ways that are illegal or that will cause significant harm to the client.
  10. \r\n
  11. Empowerment; Advocacy works to increase the power and control clients have over their lives.
  12. \r\n
  13. Independent; Advocacy must be an independent proces, with no conflict of interest. It must focus solely on the rights and interests of the client.
  14. \r\n
  15. Needs based; Service is provided to people in the client group according to need. The service is free and equitable.
  16. \r\n
  17. Partisan; Advocacy is on the side of the disadvantaged party. It exists to assist clients. Advocates are therefore not neutral umpires or mediators.
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                                          Types of Advocacy:

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    \r\n
  1. Statutory advocacy,
  2. \r\n
  3. Issue Based Advocacy,
  4. \r\n
  5. Citizen advocacy- one to partnership between two people, a relationship based on trust , loyalty,
  6. \r\n
  7. Community Organization Advocacy- community does the advocacy
  8. \r\n
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Add or explain more here above

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                                                Rules of advocacy:

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    \r\n
  • Listen,
  • \r\n
  • Suspend judgment
  • \r\n
  • Respect for all,
  • \r\n
  • Speak your voice to be heard
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                                             What to advocate for

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    \r\n
  • Policies / decisions
  • \r\n
  • Resource allocation
  • \r\n
  • Laws
  • \r\n
  • Attitudes
  • \r\n
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How to advocate (key elements of Civil Society Advocacy)

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    \r\n
  • The establishment of a close and trusted relationship with communities (beneficiaries) that the advocacy reflects their authentic concerns.
  • \r\n
  • Obtaining accurate information and establishing a clear message and clear demands
  • \r\n
  • Build effective relationships with the target audience, the people or institution that the advocacy is aimed at.
  • \r\n
  • Maintain a regular review of the impact for accountability and to adjust setbacks and evaluate responses.
  • \r\n
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                                  Identifying power centers in your area

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These are decision making bodies at different levels of influence and power sharing. These include:

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    \r\n
  • Parish Development Committees (Parish Executives).
  • \r\n
  • Local Council Chairpersons
  • \r\n
  • Sub-county Development Plan (Sub-county executive and Sub-county Technical Staff).
  • \r\n
  • Lc111 Council
  • \r\n
  • District Development Plan (District Executive and District Technical Staff).
  • \r\n
  • District Council (Chairperson and councilors)
  • \r\n
  • Members of Parliament
  • \r\n
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                                            Steps in advocacy

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Identify a need.
  • \r\n
  • Identify possible partners / stakeholders.
  • \r\n
  • Design a strategy.
  • \r\n
  • Package your information well.
  • \r\n
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    8 STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL GRASSROOTS ADVOCACY CAMPAIGNS

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    \r\n
  • Set SMART goals;
  • \r\n
  • Create the strategy; Bridging the gap between goals and actions is where your strategy comes into play
  • \r\n
  • Clearly communicate; Your message needs to be simple and clear to the right audience. It also needs to reach them where they are. Your strategy should take into account who you are trying to reach, what message is important to them and how they are most likely to receive that message.
  • \r\n
  • Use new media/Internet
  • \r\n
  • Get fund raising; No matter how big a volunteer force, or how much passion and energy you have, successful grassroots advocacy still requires cash.
  • \r\n
  • Build coalitions; Grassroots advocacy is all about binding together like-minded people for a single purpose or cause. The same collaboration can, and should, happen between organizations.
  • \r\n
  • Organize communities;
  • \r\n
  • Engage policy makers;
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                                          ADVOCACY STRATEGIES

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These are methods you can use for your advocacy. You can use any or combinations of the following:

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    \r\n
  • News papers, radio, television, rally, local gathering, funeral, community meeting, posters, Master of Ceremonies at a party, demonstration, etc.
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          DEVELOPING A CLEAR ADVOCACY STRATEGY

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Advocacy efforts must be both logical and flexible to achieve the desired results. Engaging stake holders and coalition members in early conversations about objectives and goals achieves buy-in for the advocacy effort and assists the group in articulating those goals and objective.

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                                           Advocates should:

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    \r\n
  • Clearly define objectives, demands, and target. Who has the power to make the change?
  • \r\n
  • Organize activities aimed at achieving the objectives and building towards the final goal; and
  • \r\n
  • Plan the action and schedule for the effort recognizing that this plan may need to change after each step based on outcomes and feedback along the way.
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Advocacy questions should be SMART; Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time bound.

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                                      Strategic Questions to Answer:

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    \r\n
  • Has the government signed any relevant international treaties? Are there any monitoring mechanisms in those treaties?
  • \r\n
  • Are there any government bodies that monitor or are responsible for the issue? If not could there be?
  • \r\n
  • Are any members of parliament interested in the issue? Is there a sub-committee that is responsible for the issue?
  • \r\n
  • Have the political parties taken a position on the issue?
  • \r\n
  • How can policy makers be accessed? Are there any formal mechanisms of access? Are there any informal mechanisms of access?
  • \r\n
  • What or who influences the government position on this issue, i.e. businesses, other countries, financial institutions?
  • \r\n
  • Is the media influential on this issue? Which media is not influential? Are there particular journalists who cover this issue?
  • \r\n
  • How important is public opinion in the political process? Will working on this issue strengthen the role of the public in determining policy?
  • \r\n
  • Are there particular individuals who could influence this issue, such as academics, retired government officials, religious or community leaders?                                            
  • \r\n
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Conclusion

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Remember that advocacy is a process. Sometimes we may see the results immediately and more often we may never live to see the fruits of our work. Advocacy requires careful planning, patience and strategies. Advocacy targets policy. Since policy makers make decisions basing on information available to them or information provided by the beneficiaries, advocacy becomes very vital in resource allocation, budgeting and planning. When there are competing demands for scarce resources, policy makers will most often allocate such resources to communities or concerns that are well known or loud enough to attract attention.

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                                           NETWORKING

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Session objectives

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    \r\n
  • Definition of networking
  • \r\n
  • Objectives of networking
  • \r\n
  • Guiding principles of networking
  • \r\n
  • Results of networking
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  • Sources of networking
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  • Essential Elements of a network
  • \r\n
  • Challenges of networking
  • \r\n
  • Opportunities for networking for persons with epilepsy.
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Definition

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Networking is an established relationship among service providers used to link clients for additional services they need. Networking is a framework through which service providers fulfill their obligations by coordinating their efforts in a strategic partnership with each other.

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Objectives of Networking

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The basic aims of networking are to ensure that there is an effective way to acquire essential services.

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Networking involves communication and knowledge exchange.

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    \r\n
  • Attractive branding
  • \r\n
  • Support supervision
  • \r\n
  • Participatory monitoring and evaluation
  • \r\n
  • Give feed back
  • \r\n
  • Make follow up.
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Guiding principles and key elements of networking

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  • Observance of the rights ofthe client.
  • \r\n
  • Early intervention and support.
  • \r\n
  • Reducing stigma and discrimination.
  • \r\n
  • Access for organizations providing support to vulnerable groups
  • \r\n
  • Partnership among stakeholders to meet the needs of clients and their households.
  • \r\n
  • Comprehensive quality services shall require commitment to promote cross sectoral linkages with relevant stakeholders
  • \r\n
  • Ensuring the confidentiality of client personal information & respect of their rights
  • \r\n
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Sources of networking

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    \r\n
  • Person to person
  • \r\n
  • Parent, caregivers and other household members
  • \r\n
  • Friends, neighbours and other members of the public
  • \r\n
  • National and local agencies that are not partners in the referral network.
  • \r\n
  • Partner agencies in the network.
  • \r\n
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  Essential Elements of a network

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    \r\n
  1. A group of organizations working together to provide comprehensive services to meet the needs of clients their caregivers and their families within a defined geographic area.
  2. \r\n
  3. A coordination unit within a government system to oversee the network mechanism.
  4. \r\n
  5. Periodic meetings of networking providers
  6. \r\n
  7. Designated person(s) at each organization
  8. \r\n
  9. A directory of organizations providing services to clients within a defined catchment area
  10. \r\n
  11. A standardized referral form
  12. \r\n
  13. A feedback loop to track referrals
  14. \r\n
  15. Documentation of referral. At both ends of the referral (referring organization and receiving organization) a written record of the referral is needed to document outcomes.
  16. \r\n
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Results of improved Networks

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    \r\n
  1. Increased access to services
  2. \r\n
  3. Organizations establish contacts.
  4. \r\n
  5. All clients and their problems are documented  thus easing reporting.
  6. \r\n
  7. When a person is referred to a particular organization in the network tracking can be easy.
  8. \r\n
  9. Gaps in services are identified and steps taken by stakeholders in the network to bridge them.
  10. \r\n
  11. Feedback referral informs the organizations in the network that the requested service (s) has been delivered and has met the needs of the client.
  12. \r\n
  13. Stakeholders share experiences and information during the network meetings and pave the way forward to addressing challenges.
  14. \r\n
  15. When we network we establish a relationship between service providers and clients to the services they need.
  16. \r\n
  17. Networking enhances team work among stakeholders.
  18. \r\n
  19. Relationships are improved between organizations and with the government.
  20. \r\n
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xi)       Effectiveness and efficiency is enhanced in the services provided to people

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NB: Networking is built around organizations receiving clients, providing services to them and redirecting them to other organizations for other services which they cannot provide but which are essential to settling the client’s problem or need.

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\r\n

Service provider of first instance (A)

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    \r\n
  • Assess client
  • \r\n
  • Provide service
  • \r\n
  • Documents service
  • \r\n
  • Refers to another service provider
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Other service provider (C)

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    \r\n
  • Receives client referred from facility (B)
  • \r\n
  • Provides services
  • \r\n
  • Makes follow up on client
  • \r\n
  • Documents referral activity
  • \r\n
  • Makes feedback or refers other needed services.
  • \r\n
  • Conducts quality assurance
  • \r\n
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Example of a referral network:

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Receiving service provider (B)

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    \r\n
  • Receives clients
  • \r\n
  • Provides service
  • \r\n
  • Documents service
  • \r\n
  • Makes feedback or refers clients for other needed services
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Process of developing a network

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Challenges in networking

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    \r\n
  1. Inadequate advocacy and resource mobilization structures
  2. \r\n
  3. Inadequate capacity of implementers to mobilize communities for action on some issues.
  4. \r\n
  5. Limited private sector participation in some interventions, yet it is of tremendous potential.
  6. \r\n
  7. Multiple coordination, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms resulting into duplication of efforts, wastage of resources and limited coverage.
  8. \r\n
  9. Limited structures and systems at lower government and community levels to support the response.
  10. \r\n
  11. Weak networking system among service providers at all levels.
  12. \r\n
  13. Limited and not up to date data for informed decision making and evidence based planning at all levels.
  14. \r\n
  15. Weak systems of mobilizing and tracking resources and documenting impact at all levels
  16. \r\n
  17. Heavy reliance on donor support, with limited funding from the central government, local government and communities which is a threat to the sustainability of interventions, and the current approach is more of piece meal rather than comprehensive nature.
  18. \r\n
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Examples/Opportunities for Networking for ESAU Branches.

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a) The Community Drug Bank

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b) The disability fraternity and all disabled peoples organizations

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c) Professionals in sector relevant to the group (health, education, community services, production among others

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d) NGO Networks

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e) District & Subcounty local governments

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TOPIC FIVE: MEMBERSHIP ORGANISATION AND MEMBERSHIP ISSUES

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ESAU is a membership organization where a person pays a membership fee of shs 2000/=(two thousands) in order to belong to the association. Out of the 2000/=, shs 1000 is retained by the branch and the other 1000/= goes to the secretariat for processing the card.

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ESAU. A paid up member will receive a membership card.

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Members of ESAU include persons with epilepsy, their parents, relatives and guardians.

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ESAU membership eligibility

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    \r\n
  1. A person living with epilepsy (PWE)
  2. \r\n
  3. Guardians
  4. \r\n
  5. Volunteers who feel the need to help others
  6. \r\n
  7. Those who believe in ESAU objectives.
  8. \r\n
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Membership types

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1. Ordinary

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2. Associate

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3. Honorary

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Membership is renewable on an annual basis by payment of an annual subscription fee set by the general assembly.

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  Termination of membership

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Membership may be terminated under the following circumstances

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    \r\n
  • Failure to pay subscription.
  • \r\n
  • Expulsion/resignation of a member.
  • \r\n
  • Death/bankruptcy/unsound mind.
  • \r\n
  • Misconduct as determined by the board or local executive council
  • \r\n
  • Where a member is opposed to ESAU objectives
  • \r\n
  • When the General Assembly requests termination in the interest of the organization.
  • \r\n
  • End of the organization.
  • \r\n
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Before a member is expelled from the association, he/she shall be granted a right to be heard by the executive and may appeal to the general assembly in 14 days’ time. The general Assembly’s decision shall be final and conclusive. Refund of membership fees/ annual subscription will not be made.

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Roles of leaders in membership issues:

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    \r\n
  • To identify persons with epilepsy and encourage them to join as members.
  • \r\n
  • Documentation of all activities; recording minutes of all meetings/activities.
  • \r\n
  • Be able to know the number of PWE.
  • \r\n
  • Recruit more members.
  • \r\n
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TOPIC SIX: LEADERSHIP

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                      “REAWAKENING YOUR LEADERSHIP POTENTIAL”

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          Try to understand yourself and search for a hidden treasure within you!!!

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Session Objectives

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    \r\n
  • Definition of leadership
  • \r\n
  • Styles of leadership
  • \r\n
  • Qualities of a good leader
  • \r\n
  • Leadership structure/composition
  • \r\n
  • Leadership roles and functions
  • \r\n
  • Keys to effective leadership
  • \r\n
  • Principles of leadership
  • \r\n
  • Causes of leadership failure
  • \r\n
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  Objectives in Leadership training:

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    \r\n
  • To brainstorm and understand the qualities a leader in the 21st Century needs to have.
  • \r\n
  • To challenge ourselves on true qualities of a good leader.
  • \r\n
  • To widen knowledge on other leadership concepts.
  • \r\n
  • To identify and share the values characterizing leadership as a service.
  • \r\n
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Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among people to influence them to achieve common goals.

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This is guiding and directing others to strive willingly and enthusiastically towards achieving a set goal. A functional and sustainable group should have effective leadership to guide and direct other members towards attaining the group goal as well as to articulate the group needs and aspirations. The group leadership must comprise democratically elected members.

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“Be nice to people on your way up because you will meet them on your way down”

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                                         Styles of leadership

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Participatory leadership

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Directory leadership

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\r\n
    \r\n
  • Encourages personnel through promising rewards to active members.
  • \r\n
  • Gives personnel credit for any success attained.
  • \r\n
  • Accepts responsibility for any failures.
  • \r\n
  • Makes all the work into the game.
  • \r\n
  • Depends on demonstrated ability.
  • \r\n
\r\n
\r\n
    \r\n
  • Threatens personnel with dismissal.
  • \r\n
  • Takes credit for any success.
  • \r\n
  • Blames failure on personnel.
  • \r\n
  • Makes work drudgery.
  • \r\n
  • Thinks she/he knows all the answers.
  • \r\n
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Qualities of a good leader

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    \r\n
  1. Listens
  2. \r\n
  3. Is interested in people he/she leads
  4. \r\n
  5. Is active
  6. \r\n
  7. Is energetic
  8. \r\n
  9. Is brave
  10. \r\n
  11. Is decisive
  12. \r\n
  13. Is knowledgeable
  14. \r\n
  15. Is incompetent
  16. \r\n
  17. Is transparent
  18. \r\n
  19. Is loyal
  20. \r\n
  21. Is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm
  22. \r\n
  23. Has a sense of duty
  24. \r\n
  25. Is impartial
  26. \r\n
  27. Participates
  28. \r\n
  29. Encourages team spirit
  30. \r\n
  31. Has integrity
  32. \r\n
  33. Acts fairly
  34. \r\n
  35. Demonstrates intelligence
  36. \r\n
  37. Always requests but does not demand
  38. \r\n
  39. Encourages constructive criticism
  40. \r\n
  41. Shows faith in those they lead
  42. \r\n
  43. They are honest
  44. \r\n
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                                     Leadership structure

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It should neither be too small nor too big. The ideal number of leaders should be more than 5 but less than 12 and should be an odd number to avoid ties during decisions on controversial issues. It is important to note however that chairpersons have a casting vote on any issue of controversy.

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Composition of a leadership structure

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    \r\n
  • Chairperson/President
  • \r\n
  • Vice chairperson/Vice president
  • \r\n
  • Secretary/General Secretary
  • \r\n
  • Treasurer/Secretary for finance
  • \r\n
  • Publicity secretary/Mobilizer/Spokesman
  • \r\n
  • Ordinary committee members
  • \r\n
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NB. In mixed groups, ensure that 1/3 of the leaders are women and within membership organizations for persons with disabilities it is important that peron with disabilities are given opportunity to lead.

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Leadership roles and functions:

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    \r\n
  • Guide the group in planning, formulation of the goal, objectives and preparation of action plan.
  • \r\n
  • Facilitates effective communication within the group and implements group activities.
  • \r\n
  • Enforcing rules and regulations.
  • \r\n
  • Train and counsel other group members
  • \r\n
  • Is a role model
  • \r\n
  • Motivates other members
  • \r\n
  • Represents the group
  • \r\n
  • Negotiates for group requirements
  • \r\n
  • Inform others and provides feedback
  • \r\n
  • Advises on problem identification and solving
  • \r\n
  • Identify and suggest innovative ideas to the group
  • \r\n
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Why good leadership is needed:

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    \r\n
  • To meet organizational challenges
  • \r\n
  • To sustain productivity, profitability and quality of activities over a test of time.
  • \r\n
  • To promote organizational survival in a competitive environment.
  • \r\n
  • Propelling the organization (leadership is the will of an organization).
  • \r\n
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What people value in a good leader:

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A good leader must be that one who;

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    \r\n
  • Shows enthusiasm
  • \r\n
  • Supports others
  • \r\n
  • Recognizes individual effort
  • \r\n
  • Listens to individual ideas and problems
  • \r\n
  • Provides vision and direction
  • \r\n
  • Demonstrates integrity
  • \r\n
  • Practices what he or she preaches
  • \r\n
  • Encourages team work
  • \r\n
  • Encourages feedback
  • \r\n
  • Develops other people
  • \r\n
  • Is a strategic thinker
  • \r\n
  • Is a servant leader
  • \r\n
  • Is an agent of change
  • \r\n
  • Admits wrong and Corrects own mistake
  • \r\n
  • Tolerates others’ reasonable mistakes
  • \r\n
  • Handles grievances fairly
  • \r\n
  • Is ethical
  • \r\n
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Keys to effective leadership:

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    \r\n
  • Trust and confidence
  • \r\n
  • Effective communication
  • \r\n
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 Principles of effective leadership:

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Knowing yourself and seeking self-improvement
  • \r\n
  • Be technically proficient
  • \r\n
  • Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions
  • \r\n
  • Make sound and timely decisions
  • \r\n
  • Knowing the people you lead
  • \r\n
  • Disseminating information to the people you lead.
  • \r\n
  • Ensure oversight and supervision
  • \r\n
  • Leadership is behavior not position
  • \r\n
  • Leadership is about pursuing a vision not money
  • \r\n
  • Leading means making an impact
  • \r\n
  • Setting an example as a leader
  • \r\n
  • Actions speak louder than words
  • \r\n
  • Flexibility may refer to behavior not values
  • \r\n
  • Leadership is all about people
  • \r\n
  • Its ok to admit mistakes
  • \r\n
  • Unity is strength
  • \r\n
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                                     Causes of leadership failure:

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    \r\n
  • Incompetence; lack of knowledge in pursuit of goals, rigid, stiff, unyielding, unwilling to change
  • \r\n
  • Intemperate; lacking self-control, cannot control emotions
  • \r\n
  • When you are callous i.e. hurtle, unkind, uncaring, ignoring the needs of others
  • \r\n
  • If one is corrupt; lies, cheats, steals and places self-interest first
  • \r\n
  • Insular; i.e. not being in contact with others, works in isolation like an island
  • \r\n
  • Evil; immoral sinful, does psychological or physical harm to others.
  • \r\n
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                                           Why successful leaders fall:

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    \r\n
  • Arrogance; you always think that you are the right one and everyone else is wrong.
  • \r\n
  • Melodrama; you want to be the center of attention
  • \r\n
  • Volatility; you are subject to mood swings
  • \r\n
  • Excessive caution; you are afraid to make decisions
  • \r\n
  • Habitual distrust; you focus on the negative
  • \r\n
  • Aloofness; you are disengaged and disconnected to practical organizational issues
  • \r\n
  • Mischievousness; having ill will, hatred, malice, believe that rules are made to be broken
  • \r\n
  • Eccentricity; you are strange to others, passive resistance
  • \r\n
  • Passive resistance; what you say is not what you believe
  • \r\n
  • Perfectionism; you do small things right and big things wrong
  • \r\n
  • Eagerness to please; you try to win the popularity contest
  • \r\n
  • Emphasis on title
  • \r\n
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As a leader one needs to know what his/her people want and the best way of all is to get it from them. This calls for challenging people to do the right things not doing things right. It also involves challenging them to risk thinking creatively and differently

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Activity

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Write 5 things you can agree as a team to work on as you contribute towards Epilepsy Support Association of Uganda

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TEAM BUILDING

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A team is a small group of people who work tighter for a common purpose. Members at the district branch have common values, goals and objectives. When they work together to achieve this they are acting as a team.

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CHARACTERISTICTS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAM. 

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Think of an effective team you have been part of in the past. It can be a research team or a sports team or a work team. Think about what made it effective and what it felt like to be part of that team.

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    \r\n
  1. Now think of the characteristics that made that team effective and list them
  2. \r\n
  3. Different groups will share the lists of characteristics and try to arrive at a common list
  4. \r\n
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DISCUSSION POINTS

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The following are the characteristics of effective teams that some people think are important. Compare your list to those below

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    \r\n
  1. a sense of common purpose and clear objectives understood by all team members
  2. \r\n
  3. commitment and urgency towards achieving the objectives
  4. \r\n
  5. A high degree of trust towards achieving the objectives
  6. \r\n
  7. Mutual support to one another
  8. \r\n
  9. Honest open communication
  10. \r\n
  11. The leader recognizes when team work is necessary and when  an individual  should have freedom to work alone
  12. \r\n
  13. Has leadership that is effective and keeps the team together
  14. \r\n
  15. Has ability to listen and willingness to learn from the experience from others
  16. \r\n
  17. Has a balance of roles that team members perform and the skills needed to achieve the team’s tasks without discrimination e.g. ARSENAL-English premiership 2004 undefeated for the whole season
  18. \r\n
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COMMUNICATION

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What is communication?

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The sharing of ideas or information in order to come to a common understanding

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A process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts, feelings and attitudes

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Communication is a vital part of leadership. All leaders MUST be equipped with communication skills as they serve the purpose of being the link between PWE, the Association and partners in the struggle to bring epilepsy out of the shadows.

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    \r\n
  1. Why is communication so important?
  2. \r\n
  3. What skills are needed?
  4. \r\n
  5. What communication skills do you use?                       
  6. \r\n
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   For Communication to be effective:

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*    Information should be  understood by the sender and receiver

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*    Communication can take either verbal or non-verbal forms. Both are of great importance in the undertaking of communication

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Qualities needed in Communication

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    \r\n
  1. Desire to help
  2. \r\n
  3. Patience
  4. \r\n
  5. Respect for others
  6. \r\n
  7. Genuineness
  8. \r\n
  9. Ability to put others at ease
  10. \r\n
  11. Listening skills
  12. \r\n
  13. Ability to grasp what is not spoken but implied
  14. \r\n
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SKILLS IN ACTIVE LISTENING

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      R- Be Relaxed

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      O- Open

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      L- Lean forward

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      E- Eye contact with the person

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      S- Sit near the person

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Non Verbal Communication:

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    \r\n
  • BODY LANGUAGE
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

Position

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Facial Expression

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Eye contact

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Interpretation of the clients’s body language

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    \r\n
  • TOUCH
  • \r\n
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Verbal communication

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Transmitting
  • \r\n
  • Repeating/reflecting feelings
  • \r\n
  • Summarizing
  • \r\n
  • Don’t give advise
  • \r\n
  • Don’t change the subject
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

Verbal skills: Questioning:

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Open (unrestricted answers)

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Closed :( restricted answers)

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Leading: (produce expected response)

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Probing: (Follow -up questions)

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 Positive Attitude

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Our attitude in communication can be vital in enabling effective and therapeutic communication to take place.
  • \r\n
  • Example of the attitudes we need to possess if we are to communicate effectively with PLWE and their families:
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Non –judgmental
  • \r\n
  • Accepting
  • \r\n
  • Caring attitude
  • \r\n
  • Empathy
  • \r\n
  • Individualization
  • \r\n
  • Respecting
  • \r\n
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Simple Rules that encourage free Communication

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Get the setting right
  • \r\n
  • Find out whether the person wants to talk
  • \r\n
  • Listen and show that you are listening
  • \r\n
  • Encourage talk
  • \r\n
  • Make sure you haven’t been misunderstood
  • \r\n
  • Don’t give advise
  • \r\n
  • Don’t change the subject
  • \r\n
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Conclusion

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Communication;

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  1. Helps maintain quality of life for persons with epilepsy.
  2. \r\n
  3. Fosters partnerships between persons with epilepsy, their leaders and other networking partners
  4. \r\n
  5. Enables persons with epilepsy to continue being the person they are
  6. \r\n
  7. Avoids isolation and fear.
  8. \r\n
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TOPIC SEVEN: RECORD KEEPING

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Session Objectives:

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Definition of records keeping
  • \r\n
  • Types of records
  • \r\n
  • Importance of records keeping (brain storming)
  • \r\n
  • Limitations of poor records keeping (brain storming)
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

Record keeping is the storage of information (reliable and retrievable on something or event for reference or knowledge purpose).

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A record is a written proof of what happened, when it happened, how it happened, why it happened and is anticipated to happen. Record keeping is therefore the storing of records safely.

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   Importance of record keeping;

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • It helps to keep track of what happened.
  • \r\n
  • Provides information and data for reporting, M & E
  • \r\n
  • For future reference purposes
  • \r\n
  • For proper accountability  purposes
  • \r\n
  • As evidence of work done/accountability
  • \r\n
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Note: Records should be in written form and in a language which all group members can understand.

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Types of records

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    \r\n
  1. Human resource records.
  2. \r\n
  3. Facility records files.
  4. \r\n
  5. Inventory, transport facility, buildings in construction, tools and equipment etc.
  6. \r\n
  7. Project/program specific files-nature of project or program funding agencies.
  8. \r\n
  9. Stores: these are records of goods and supplies that come and leave the organization.
  10. \r\n
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Income Generating Activities (IGAs) are a source(s) of livelihood; they are small scale entrepreneurship and businesses that can help us meet our needs. These may range from farming, business labor, mining, fishing, electronics, shoe making among many others.

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Steps and process in initiating IGAs:

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    \r\n
  • Identify the people or community
  • \r\n
  • Identify the problem
  • \r\n
  • Identify the resources
  • \r\n
  • Identify the activities
  • \r\n
  • Identify the solutions to be realized
  • \r\n
  • Identify the project
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

Precautionary measures:

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • The activity must be of their interest
  • \r\n
  • Identify a manageable activity
  • \r\n
  • Where possible help them start IGAs which do not need funding or very little if any.
  • \r\n
  • Identify IGAs which give immediate turn-over.
  • \r\n
  • The IGA activity must be gender sensitive.
  • \r\n
  • Train them in marketable skills like shoe making, tailoring, apiary, bakery etc.
  • \r\n
  • Business marketing and marketable trading.
  • \r\n
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TOPIC EIGHT: ESAU’S FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

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 1 Objective

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    \r\n
  1. To enable leaders get basic knowledge of financial operations especially  keeping simple branch accounts and records
  2. \r\n
  3. To know more about bank procedures and systems, as well as  preparing budgets and work plans
  4. \r\n
  5. To analyze challenges and advise on the way forward
  6. \r\n
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1.1 Why do we keep financial records in ESAU?

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    \r\n
  • The records are used in making financial decisions.
  • \r\n
  • They give information that can be used to make budgets
  • \r\n
  • They help the secretariat to know whether the branches need more or less money, continued support
  • \r\n
  • They help in assessing whether the funds have been utilized properly
  • \r\n
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1.2 IMPORTANT FINANCIAL DOCUMENTS

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • Receipt books both used and unused
  • \r\n
  • Cheque books
  • \r\n
  • Bank books
  • \r\n
  • Bank statements
  • \r\n
  • Used bank slips both deposit and withdraw slips
  • \r\n
  • Financial documents from the secretariat
  • \r\n
  • Budgets
  • \r\n
  • Work plans especially costed ones
  • \r\n
  • Reports
  • \r\n
  • Accountability documents
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

Note: The treasurer is the custodian of all financial documents and is also answerable to fellow executive members on financial and money matters (reflect qualities of a good financial manager/leader)

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2 BUDGETS AND WORK PLANS FOR ESAU’S BRANCHES

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2.1 Uses (ask participants to contribute)

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    \r\n
  • Planning Tool to the branch
  • \r\n
  • Help the branch to know the activities to be done in a specified period of time
  • \r\n
  • Helps the branch to spend within its limits; matching revenue vs expenditure
  • \r\n
\r\n\r\n

2.2 What is a budget?

\r\n\r\n

It is a layout of activities in monetary terms to be performed in a specified period of time like 6 months, 1 year, 1 week etc. . It reflects both receipts and expenses. 

\r\n\r\n

Examples of budgets: Activity, Operational, Fixed budget, rolling, Branch, programme.

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2.3 Characteristics of a good budget

\r\n\r\n
    \r\n
  • It should have a time frame usually one year
  • \r\n
  • Activities should be quantified in monetary terms
  • \r\n
  • It should show currency
  • \r\n
  • It should be approved and signed by all executive committee members.
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For every activity to be done the branch leaders must first raise a budget. Which budget must be first be approved by the branch leaders (refer to the qualities of a good leader)

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2.4 Format of a budget

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Name of Branch------------------District-------------Date-----------

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A Budget for the period of 12 months ending

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Particulars/Activity

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Quantity (in units)

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Unit price

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Budgeted Amount

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Approved by

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Chairman-----------------------------------

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Vice chairman-----------------------------

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Secretary-----------------------------------

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Treasurer---------------------------------

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Publicity Secretary---------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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2.5 Format of a costed Work plan

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Particulars/Activity

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Time Frame

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Persons Responsible

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 Amount

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Approved by

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Chairman-----------------------------------

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Vice chairman-----------------------------

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Secretary-----------------------------------

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Treasurer---------------------------------

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Publicity Secretary---------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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Accountability shows how much the branch has received and spent on a specified activity e.g UGX 50,000/= has been received for an executive meeting   and how it has been spent.

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2.6 Format of an accountability Sheet for ESAU Branches

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Activity done ------------------- Place-----------Date-----------

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Particulars

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Budgeted Amount

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Spent Amount

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Balance

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Comments

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Total

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Attach all receipts and any accountability documents like lists of transport refund relating to that activity on this accountability report

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 Approved by

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Chairman-----------------------------------

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Secretary-----------------------------------

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Treasurer---------------------------------

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2.7 How can Branch Leaders Monitor Branch Funds?

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  • Attending branch meetings
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  • Making accountabilities for any activity done (see format) with receipts attached.
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  • Approving accountabilities presented during the meeting
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  • Receiving financial reports from members especially treasurer.
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  • The treasurer collecting monthly bank statements from your  branch account
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2.8 Financial monitoring by the Secretariat

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ESAU shall carry out financial monitoring in all in her branches especially at district levels

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The following shall be checked during financial monitoring

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  • Membership fees collected and if banked evidence of bank slips
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  • Subscription fees collected and how it is managed
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  • Accountabilities of all activities carried out in the branch
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  • Financial report submitted to the secretariat
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  • Bank documents including bank statements, deposit and withdraw slips, account balance, bank books.
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  • Branch documentations and records
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  • Budgets and costed work plan
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3 BANK PROCEDURES AND SYSTEMS

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What is a Bank? It is an institution that accepts deposits, keeps custody of money of its clients

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Examples of banks in your areas (participants sight some)

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International Banks: Stanbic, Barclays, Baroda, Cairo

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National Banks; Centenary, Bank of commerce, Post bank, Women trust, Crane

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Local bank: Microfinance institutions,

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3.1 How to open an account, requirements?

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Passport photos, constitution, Identity card, signatories, letter of introductions, Resolution from members, minimum amount of at least UGX 20,000/=

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3.2 How to deposit money?

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  • Using a banking slip
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Fill in the account details

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Account Name

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Account Number

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Account Branch

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Date of transaction

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Amount in words and figures

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Name of depositor

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Telephone contact if any

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signature of depositor

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3.3 How to withdraw money from the account?

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  • Using a withdraw slip
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Fill in the account details

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Account Name

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Account Number

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Date of transaction

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Amount in words and figures

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Signatures of the official account signatories

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3.4 How to obtain a bank statement?

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It is done by one of the signatories preferably the treasurer on monthly basis.

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Bank statement shows the movement of money from (withdrawals)  to (deposits) to the account

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3.5 How to transfer money from one account to another

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  1. In the same bank?
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First fill in the withdraw slip (use the withdraw procedure above)

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After getting the money then fill a deposit slip (use the deposit procedure above)

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  1. In the different bank?
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First in the deposit slip using the deposit procedure above

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4 FUNDRAISING

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(Ask participants to contribute)

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Ways of fundraising

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  • Members’ subscription  annually
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  • Carrying out IGAs and selling the products
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  • Auction of items
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  • Drama
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  • Dinners
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  • Parties
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5 Proposal writing

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General structure of a proposal

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  1. Guidelines
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  3. Subject/Title
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  5. Purpose and significance
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  7. Objectives
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  9. Activities and how they will be done (methodology)
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  11. Targeted population
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  13. Location – where the work is to be performed
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  15. Expected outputs/results
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  17. Budget
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  19. Appendices
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Note: Obtain the donor guidelines showing requirements of fund beneficiaries.

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This document shows the information required from the applicants

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Amount, personal requirement, legal documents,

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Note:  Consult Persons with technical skills in proposal writing like CDOs at sub county levels, the Secretariat staff and well wishers, partners.

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Most government programme have a standard form which a group must fill and submit t the Community Development Office for evaluation and recommendation to the project award committee.

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5.1 General writing Tips

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  • Use short but clear sentences
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  • Mind the language used, avoid mixing languages, use of slang
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  • Structure the proposal using headings, paragraphs, precise titles and subtitles
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  • Proof read the proposal as many times as possible to ensure perfection
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  • Divide roles when writing a proposal taking advantage of individual skills and experience
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  • Be accurate in figures especially the budget
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  • Punctuate the sentences
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  • Follow the guidelines and do not exceed the budget ceiling indicated
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CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD

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Challenges

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  • Poor or no accountabilities and reports submitted to the secretariat
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  • As leaders we tend to divert branch funds to other activities like membership money is used to facilitate meetings
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  • Some chairmen and treasurers never deposit money in the bank. They use their pockets to keep branch funds
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  • Leaders never attend meetings
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  • Some branches never post their accountabilities to the secretariat.
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Way forward for branch Leaders to be good treasurers

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  • Make work plans and budgets
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  • Make accountabilities and reports. Submit them to the secretariat
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(Ask participants to sight out their challenges when managing ESAU branch finances)

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Income Generating Activities (IGAs)

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Operating an income generating activity provides the opportunity to be self-employed using one’s own skills and resources. IGAs generate increased income that allows families to enjoy better food, clothes shelter, medicine and status in society. Many times the poor do not have confidence in their capabilities and think that they cannot manage economic activities or other innovations that let them live better.

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Seven important points to note

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  1. What product or service do people lack in this community?
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  3. Can I operate this IGA?
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  5.   Skills and knowledge; do I have the skills and knowledge needed to operate this activity.
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  7. Time, Do I have the time to operate the activity and do I know the season.
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  9. Will people buy the product I sell?
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  11. Is my IGA profitable?
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  13. How much money do I need to start and operate this IGA? What are the possible sources for this IGA funding
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Examples of activities, which offer income on daily or weekly basis, include

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  • Roadside table consisting of biscuits, cakes, hankies etc
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  • Kiosks. It is simple to set up a roadside kiosk anywhere in Uganda. In some villages some people are even able to sell vital household items like soap and paraffin from their houses. The community soon knows that such items are available within easy reach and will begin to buy them. Sometimes it may be necessary to put a small sign post by the road
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  • Crafts shop. Many people are able to make small crafts like mats, earrings, necklaces, decorations and stools which can be sold to the community. Usually the materials are locally available and many other people may join the association because they want to learn the skill of making such crafts.
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  • Hawking/ mobile shops. This can be another project where young men and women move around the community with essential goods, cosmetic and necklaces either on a bicycle or on their head. They can be able to sell such items
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  • Pottery. A group of people may come together and make clay pots and other clay items that they may sell for income
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  • A dance/Drama Troupe.  A few members of the community may come together and start a group to provide entertainment to the community at a fee. Such a group may bring together people of all ages. The services of such a group will be hired by people or institutions that have functions or that are celebrating events.
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  • Events management has become very popular these days and some people are hired to speak or entertain guests as Masters of Ceremonies. This is very popular in central Uganda
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  • Catering services. A group of people or village association provides catering services for a fee. They may invest in chairs, tents, plates and saucepans and then cook at functions. The money they earn becomes income for the group which members can borrow
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  • Tree Nurseries. An individual or group of people may decide to set up a tree nursery focusing on one or many type of trees as may be popular in the area. People will buy the seddlings while the group members will plant the remaining seedlings.
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  • Bicycle repair workshop
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An example of such a project was shared in one of ESAU’s trainings. A mother of a child with epilepsy bought a bicycle pump and gave it to this child. The child would sit by the roadside under a tree on every Monday market day. Cyclists would pay a fee to use the pump and the proceeds would pay for the medication of the child. Such a project could be expanded to include small bicycle spares

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  • Drug shop
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  • Joint Gardens. In many parts of Uganda, groups of people may rent land from an individual and contribute labour so that they plant certain seasonal crops like maize or cassava which they will later sell to earn an income. In Muko, Kabale, a branch of ESAU planted two acres of potatoes and were able to earn some money after four months. In some cases, such group members may also sell their labour to an individual or an institution for a fee
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  • Brewing local drinks
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In Eastern and Northern Uganda where people consume Malwa and Kwete, it could make economic sense for one to brew such drink for an income without actually setting up a bar

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  • In some parts of Uganda, especially western Uganda, ladies make millet porridge for sale on market days and just sit under a tree by the roadside and make money. Others may have a specific room at a trading centre where they sell porridge
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  • Tea room/restaurant(Eating house).
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One may decide to set up an eating house at a weekly market where traders come and eat their lunch. In a town setting, a lady may prepare food at home and carry it to the trading centre where she can serve it to customers. Other opportunities may arise when a company has a construction site in an area. Such workers will require someone who can serve them tea and lunch on contract basis. To avoid losing one’s invested cash, the food provider needs to make a contract with the foreman so that payments are deducted from each of the builders at source

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Vital Information in selecting a viable project

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Living with a chronic illness is a very big challenge as it denies the individual and the family an important resource. The individual is normally sickly and weak as a result of the seizures or even the side effects of the medications they take. The family has been spending heavily on the treatment of their loved one that there may be no more money left to invest in a project.

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It is very important therefore to start a project that will not strain the already diminished financial resources of the family. Choose a project that doesn’t require a lot of money to take off. But most importantly choose a project that will involve the sick person both physically and mentally. In the case of persons with epilepsy who have controlled seizures, they will feel very motivated to contribute to the economic resources of the family. Physically, they may be able to move around and collect feeding materials or sit in a kiosk or even contribute energy and time to managing the project. This is very important to involve them.

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In many situations, chronically ill people feel a level of guilt that they deprive the rest of the family very vital financial resources. In such situations they get depressed and feel worth less. Some get depressed as family members lament about the strain the disease passes on to the family. Some may fell the desire to die in order to remove the burden on their family. By involving them in a money generating project, the family is therefore making an important declaration. That such a project is directed at reducing the burden caused by the disease on the family and that the individual whose illness has been a burden to the family will now have an opportunity to contribute to the family’s income. The individual therefore feels more valued and gets very motivated to make this vital contribution.

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In choosing the project, the sick family member should be consulted and involved in all the planning processes. The family should take care of the interest of the individual especially if they are adults. If they are infants, the family will arrive at the choice of the project and hope that they will train the individual to fit in.

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In ESAU’s experience, we propose projects which do not need investment capital to take off. This is why we have in the past promoted revolving loan projects where animals are passed on from one member to another. There are also projects that only require local materials to take off. Remember such projects should not require the individual to use a lot of energy to run. The individual with epilepsy doesn’t have such energy. This is why we should avoid projects like brick laying, baking etc if they are to involve a person with epilepsy.

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When people with epilepsy are involved in such projects, they gain confidence and participate in the project with dedication and commitment. This in turn guarantees the success of the project. We have met many persons with epilepsy that look after goats and pigs with such dedication and commitment that the rest of the family begins to appreciate this commitment and in turn begin to respect the individuals.

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IGAs with long term earnings includes:-

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  • Vegetable growing
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  • Poultry keeping
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  • Cattle keeping
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  • Goat keeping
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  • Piggery
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  • Seedlings
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  • Apiary
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  • Fruit growing
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  • Sugarcane growing
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  • Pumpkins
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  • Eggplants
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  • Calabash growing
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  • Sponge growing
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The choice of any of these project depends on the geographic location of the individual or group. In some areas, certain activities may not make business sense while they may be profitable in others

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Testimonies

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ESAU has experimented with many of these projects with its members  and the outcomes have been very valuable. In Adjumani, Moyo, Amuru,Oyam, Apac, Soroti, masindi goat rearing was very successful. The whole ides was that ESAU provided the initial animals to a group and asked the beneficiaries to pass on a kid to the next beneficiaries. In many of the groups where the members were vigilant the projects have been very smooth and successful.

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In Jinja, ESAU carried out a piggery project supported by the Disability Grant from the district. The project was so successful that two members graduated from piggery and now own cows. Jane Lukanda  of Budonda kept the pig until it produced piglet that she sold. Later she was able to buy a cow from the proceeds. Tenywa of Buwenge in Jinja started his piggery project from the piglet he got from the ESAU project. He got more pigs and expanded his project. He now owns goats and cows

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In Mukungwe, Masaka, one member walked to a branch meeting with eight chicks. He gave them out to eight people and requested them to start a chicken project in their homesteads. Being a person with epilepsy, he told his colleagues that he understood what it meant to live with epilepsy without an income. This poultry project has taken off and ESAU is monitoring its success which we will be able to document on our website.

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Short term IGA which are seasonal,

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  • Selling cooked food like maize or potatoes
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  • Cereals Fruit
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  • Retail in honey
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  • Groundnuts packaging
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One of the important things that one needs to know is that members should realize the danger of selecting without careful consideration of all important aspects.

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Five important points to be noted are demonstrated below

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  • Can I operate this IGA
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  • Will people buy my product
  • \r\n
  • Is this IGA profitable
  • \r\n
  • How much money do I need to start and operate this IGA?
  • \r\n
  • Will income from this IGA when added to other sources of family income be enough to meet my household expenses
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Some of the important questions that people may ask when selecting IGAs. This list may include but should not be limited to:-

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  • Market
  • \r\n
  • Knowledge and skills, time and seasonality(can I operate this activity)
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  • Profit (is this IGA profitable)
  • \r\n
  • Capital (how much money do I need to start with when added to other sources of income.
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And to answer the above questions one must think broadly of various things such as :-

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  • Products
  • \r\n
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  1. What product or services do I need to produce?
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  3. Are my products/service necessities or luxuries
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  5. Are they familiar to the people or new.
  6. \r\n
  7. Are there similar products in the market? what is their quality and their prices
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  • Buyers
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  1. Who are the buyers of my product/service
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  3. what quality do buyers want? can I provide this quality ?
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  5. what quantity is generally bought by each buyer?
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  7. How much income do they have?
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  9. Where do they live?
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  11. How will they know about my product
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  13. What else do I know about them?
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  15. How frequently do they buy these products
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  17. Do their demand vary with the season
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  19. Or does it vary with their wealth?
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  • Sellers/competition of the product/service that you want to sell.
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  1. are there any other seller of the same product in the area I want to serve and how many
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  3. who are they
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  5. where do they sell from
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  7. how do they attract customers
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  9. what is the price charged by other sellers
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  11. What special advantage do any of the competitors have?
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  13. And what special advantage do I have.
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  • Profitability
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Calculate all the cost that have incurred in a business and see if there is any profit made.

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Calculate the total value of sales

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Estimate the value of income by subtracting costs from sales

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  • Calculate income from the given IGA by use of the matrix below
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Demonstration

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Interest

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Easy to get /access

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Duration for paying back

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scores

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remarks

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Borrowing from relatives

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Loan from banks

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MFI

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LOAN FROM VSLA

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PERSONAL SAVINGS

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BUSINESS MEN AND WOMEN

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Group formation

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There should be management groups of 20-25 members each comprising of business groups of 4-6 members. Each business group is to identify a leader, democratically elected and they take up roles of chairperson, secretary, treasurer and committee member.

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The group should have a business plan to apply for a grant of up to 75%.

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There is need to encourage these members to have a group based saving scheme.

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It should not be a big amount since people who have little to save should be given chance to propose any amount of their choice for weekly contribution.  but it can be decided by  the members.

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This will instill a sense ownership in a member and a basis of sustainability of groups.

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Group formation. Individuals coming from the same area of origin are usually encouraged to be in the same group, village, parish, and sub-county.

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Individuals who have built trust are encouraged to be in the same group.

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Groups should save weekly before recovering the costs,

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Then the fund can be borrowed amongst them selves.

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After they have learnt they may be  linked aging to other financial institution.

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The group should be facilitated on the training of business plan.

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  • Why make business plan
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  • Marketing plan should describe the market
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  • Production plan
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  • Financial plan
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  • Financial management plan
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  • Operational management plan
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The business planning process

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What is a business plan?

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Failing to plan is planning to fail

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This is a document that defines the goals of a business and describes the means you will use to attain these goals.

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  • Need to facilitate training in business skills.
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This should look at

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  1. Business counseling- evaluating business opportunities.
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  3. Entrepreneurship
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  5. Business planning
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  7. Marketing for small business
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  9. Costing and pricing
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Group dynamics

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  • What is a group
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  • Function of a group
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  • Roles of group members
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  • Different characters in a group
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  • Causes of group failure.
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There is no link between the topic up and the accounting part. Please make sure you are not just pasting from another source

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Definition of accounting.

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There are many definitions of accounting as there are authors in this subject. None of these definitions is accurate in trying to explain what accounting is

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Accounting is the art and science of recording and classifying financial transactions in the books, summarizing and communicating financial information through production of financial statements / reports to facilitate decision making. (make a quotation from an author)

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Accounting is the process of identifying measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed and rational decisions to be made.

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In short in the ordinary or general use of the term “accounting’ it means explaining and defending.(Unclear statement)

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The uses of accounting (internal audit users)

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Management

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Employees

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Financial accounting methods

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Production of documentary evidence

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Government

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Competitors

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General public

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The cash book

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It is a book in which cash and cheque transaction are entered, when cash or cheques are received or paid out, the first book to enter such transaction is called the cash book.  It is also called a book of origin

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 The format varies from one organization to another. A two column cash book must have two money columns for cash and bank on side.

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There are three formats of cashbooks namely: Simple Cashbook, two column cashbook and three column cashbook.

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A Simple cash book contains only one amount column on each side (debit and credit) for recording cash receipts and cash payments.

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A three column cash book has additional column for discounts allowed on the debit side and discount received on the credit side, three column are rarely used in Ugandan organizations and therefore we do not need to emphasize them.

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Format of a two column cash book.

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DR.                                                                                                                                          CR.

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Date

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Particulars/ details 

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Ref

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Cash

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Bank

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Date

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Particulars/ details 

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Ref

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Cash

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Bank

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LEDGERS

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A business may use many accounts in recording its transactions. Each account is placed on a separate page in a bond or loose leaf book or on a separate card in a tray of cards, if it is kept in a book, the is called ledger it kept on cards in a file tray, the tray card is a ledger. As used the word ledger means a group of accounts or place of storage of accounts. Transaction are posted from journal to the ledger.

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Types

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General ledger

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This is the main ledger it contains all the ledgers.

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Subsidiary ledger

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To avoid over crowding the general ledger, subsidiary ledgers are created.

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This are sub-divisions of the general, it is only for major accounts called control accounts that appear in general ledger.

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Title of account.Date narrative folio amount                   Date Narrative folio amount

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Erimu Enterprise Ltd cash Book

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DR.                                                                                                                                          CR.

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Date

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Particulars/ details 

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Ref

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Cash

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Bank

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Date

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Particulars/ details 

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Ref

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Cash

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Bank

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Oct 1st

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Capital

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20,000,000

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Oct 2nd

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Land

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3,000,000

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Oct 5th

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Loan

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8,000,000

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Oct 15th

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Equipment supplied

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1,500,000

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Oct 20th

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Land

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500,000

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Oct 17th

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Vehicle

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10,000,000

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3,000,000

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Oct 25th

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Spear motor

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2,000,000

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Oct 30th

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Drawings

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500,000

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ESAU FINANCIAL SYSTEMS CONTROL

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 1 Objective

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  1. To enable leaders get basic knowledge of financial operations especially  keeping simple branch accounts and records
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  3. To know more about bank procedures and systems, as well as  preparing budgets and work plans
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  5. To analyze challenges and advise on the way forward
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1.1 Why do we keep financial records in ESAU?

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  • The records are used in making financial records.
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  • They give information that can be used to make budgets
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  • They help the secretariat to know whether the branches need more or less money, continued support
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  • They help in assessing whether the funds have been utilized properly(accountability)
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1.2 IMPORTANT FINANCIAL DOCUMENTS

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  • Receipt books both used and unused
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  • Cheque books
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  • Bank books
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  • Bank statements
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  • Used bank slips both deposit and withdraw slips
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  • Financial documents from the secretariat
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  • Budgets
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  • Work plans especially costed ones
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  • Reports
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  • Accountability documents
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Note: The treasurer is the custodian of all financial documents and is also answerable to fellow executive members on financial and money matters (reflect qualities of a good financial manager/leader)

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2 BUDGETS AND WORK PLANS FOR ESAU BRANCHES

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2.1 Uses (ask participants to contribute)

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  • Planning Tool to the branch
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  • Help the branch to know the activities to be done in a specified period of time
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  • Helps the branch to spend within its limits; matching revenue vs expenditure
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2.2 What is a budget?

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It is a layout of activities in monetary terms to be performed in a specified period of time like 6 months, 1 year, 1 week etc.  It reflects both receipts and expenses. 

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Examples of budgets Activity, Operational, Fixed budget, rolling, Branch, programme.

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2.3 Characteristics of a good budget

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  • It should have a time frame usually one year
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  • Activities should be quantified in monetary terms
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  • It should show currency
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  • It should be approved and signed by all executive committee members.
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For every activity to be done the branch leaders must first raise a budget. A budget must first be approved by the branch leaders (refer to the qualities of a good leader)

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2.4 Format of a budget

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Name of Branch------------------District-------------Date-----------

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A Budget for the period of 12 months ending

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Particulars/Activity

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Quantity (in units)

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Unit price

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Budgeted Amount

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Approved by

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Chairman------------------------------------------------------

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Vice chairman----------------------------------------------

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Secretary--------------------------------------------------------

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Treasurer--------------------------------------------------------

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Publicity Secretary--------------------------------------

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Committee Member --------------------------------------

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Committee Member--------------------------------------

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2.5 Format of a costed Work plan

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Particulars/Activity

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Time Frame

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Persons Responsible

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 Amount

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Approved by

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Chairman--------------------------------------

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Vice chairman-----------------------------

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Secretary--------------------------------------

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Treasurer--------------------------------------

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Publicity Secretary---------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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Committee Members------------------

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Accountability shows how much the branch has received and spent on a specified activity e.g UGX 50,000/= has been received for an executive meeting   and how it has been spent.

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2.6 Format of Accountability Sheet for ESAU Branches

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Activity done ------------------- Place-----------Date-----------

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Particulars

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Budgeted Amount

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Spent Amount

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Balance

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Comments

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Total

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Attach all receipts and any accountability documents like lists of transport refund relating to that activity on this accountability report

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Approved by

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Chairman-----------------------------------

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Secretary-----------------------------------

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Treasurer---------------------------------

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2.7 How can Branch Leaders Monitor Branch Funds?

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  • Attending branch meetings
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  • Making accountabilities for any activity done (see format) with receipts attached.
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  • Approving accountabilities presented during the meeting
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  • Receiving financial reports from members especially treasurer.
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  • The treasurer collecting monthly bank statements from your account.
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2.8 Financial monitoring by the Secretariat

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ESAU shall carry out financial monitoring in all in her branches especially at district levels

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The following shall be checked during financial monitoring

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  • Membership fees collected and if banked, evidence of bank slips
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  • Subscription fees collected and how it is managed
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  • Accountabilities of all activities carried out in the branch
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  • Financial report submitted to the secretariat
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  • Bank documents including bank statements, deposit and withdraw slips, account balance, bank books.
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  • Branch documentations and records
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  • Budgets and costed work plan
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3. BANK PROCEDURES AND SYSTEMS

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What is a Bank?

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 It is an institution that accepts deposits, keeps custody of money of its clients

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Examples of banks in your areas (participants sight some)

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International Banks: Stanbic, Barclays, Baroda, Cairo, Standard Chartered Bank

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National Banks; Centenary, Post bank, Women trust, Crane

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Local bank: Microfinance institutions,

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3.1 How to open an account, requirements?

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Passport photos, constitution, signatories, letter of introduction, Resolution from members, minimum amount of at least UGX 20,000/=

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3.2 How to deposit money?

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  • Using a banking slip
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  • Fill in the account details
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  • Account Name
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  • Account Number
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  • Account Branch
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  • Date of transaction
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  • Amount in words and figures
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  • Name of depositor
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  • Contact if any
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  • Signature of depositor
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3.3 How to withdraw money from the account?

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  • Using a withdraw slip
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  • Fill in the account details
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  • Account Name
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  • Account Number
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  • Date of transaction
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  • Amount in words and figures
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  • Signatures of the official account signatories
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3.4 How to obtain a bank statement?

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It is done by one of the signatories preferably the treasurer on monthly basis.

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Bank statement shows the movement of money from (withdraws) and to (deposits) the accounts

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3.5 How to transfer money from one account to another

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  1. In the same bank?
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First fill in the withdraw slip (use the withdraw procedure above)

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After getting the money then fill a deposit slip (use the deposit procedure above)

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b. In the different bank?

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First fill in the deposit slip using the deposit procedure above

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4 FUNDRAISING

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Fundraising is the process of gathering voluntary contributions of money or other resources, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies

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Ways of fundraising

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  • Members’ subscription  annually
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  • Carrying out IGAs and selling the products
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  • Auction of items
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  • Drama
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  • Dinners
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  • Parties
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  • Proposal writing to potential funders
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